Keindahan Kain Tenun Mbojo Khas Bima

Warga Bima, Andriyani (36), sedang mengerjakan kain tenun Mbojo di halaman rumahnya yang berada di Kampung Cempaka Indah, Kota Bima, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Selasa (9/6/2015). Komaps.com/Andri Donnal Putera

Beberapa daerah di Indonesia memiliki kain khasnya sendiri, termasuk di Kota Bima, Nusa Tenggara Barat, yang memiliki kain tenun tradisional yang sudah turun temurun. Kain tersebut dinamai dengan kain Mbojo atau kain orang Bima. Kain tenun ini sudah ada sejak zaman Kerajaan Bima dulu dan sering digunakan oleh kaum perempuan di sana.

Kain Mbojo memiliki beragam motif dan warna. Model kain tenun Mbojo yang cukup tenar kini adalah yang memadukan lebih dari tiga warna dan ditenun membentuk gambar zig-zag. Kain ini disebut oleh orang asli Bima sebagai kain yang cocok dipakai di segala cuaca, baik cuaca panas maupun dingin.

“Ini kainnya kalau (cuaca) lagi panas, bisa bikin adem. Pas lagi dingin, bisa bikin hangat,” kata salah satu warga Bima, Hatim, kepada KompasTravel, Selasa (9/6/2015).

Hatim menggunakan kain Mbojo untuk syal. Kain Mbojo sebenarnya bisa dipakai untuk banyak hal selain jadi syal, seperti bahan untuk baju, selendang, motif untuk topi, sarung, ikat kepala, dan ikat pinggang.

Salah satu perempuan yang sudah lama menenun kain Mbojo adalah Andriyani. Perempuan berusia 36 tahun itu sudah 16 tahun menenun kain Mbojo menggunakan alat tenun di rumahnya. Ada kebiasaan bagi para perempuan yang menenun untuk menggunakan kain di kepalanya membentuk balutan semacam hijab dengan kain tenun Mbojo yang dinamakan rimpu.

Rimpu untuk perempuan yang belum menikah dengan yang sudah menikah juga dibedakan. Jika perempuan yang menenun kain belum menikah, maka rimpu dipasang hingga menutupi semua wajah, hanya memperlihatkan kedua mata. Tetapi untuk perempuan yang sudah menikah, sudah boleh memperlihatkan wajahnya dengan rimpu tersebut.

“Katanya kalau belum nikah rimpu sengaja dipasang tinggal kelihatan mata supaya laki-laki penasaran,” tutur Hatim.

Di Kota Bima, ada sebuah kampung bernama Cempaka Indah, di mana ada ratusan penenun kain Mbojo di sana. Kampung Cempaka Indah itu juga menjadi salah satu sentra kain Mbojo dan sasaran wisatawan yang berkunjung ke Bima untuk memburu kain.

Kain Mbojo di sana rata-rata dijual ukuran satu kali empat meter. Jarang ada yang langsung menjual kain Mbojo dalam bentuk jadi. Waktu pembuatannya pun bervariasi, ada yang bisa jadi dalam waktu tiga bulan, ada juga yang sampai setahun. Kain-kain itu dijual dengan harga mulai dari Rp 150.000 sampai Rp 500.000 ke atas.

“Kita kalau ada waktu luang saja baru bikin ini kain. Tapi kalau ada yang pesan, ya kita kejar pesanan itu. Kalau enggak ada yang pesan, kita bikin untuk diri sendiri saja,” ujar Andriyani.

Ada kebiasaan sejak zaman kerajaan dulu di mana perempuan harus bisa menenun. Kebiasaan itu pun masih dilanjutkan sampai sekarang oleh masyarakat Bima dengan menurunkan ilmu menenun ke anak-anak perempuannya. “Ini anak saya masih SD, kalau sudah SMP nanti mau saya ajari. Dulu saya mulai belajar pas umur belasan tahun,” tambah Andriyani.

Perajin kain tenun Mbojo yang lain, Misbah, sudah membawa kain tenun Mbojo ke pameran UKM nasional di Gedung Smesco, Jakarta. Menurut Misbah, harus ada yang memperkenalkan produk kain khas Bima agar bisa dikenal dunia dan budayanya tidak mati begitu saja.

Selain sebagai komoditi, kain Mbojo juga menjadi bagian dari runutan sejarah kerajaan Islam yang ada di Bima. Pada era kesultanan sebelum tahun 1960, kain Mbojo merupakan kain yang dipakai sehari-hari oleh warga Bima. Meski kini sudah banyak yang beralih ke hijab biasa, rimpu dari kain Mbojo sempat menjadi pakaian wajib bagi perempuan di Bima.

“Dulu kalau ada perempuan yang keluar rumah tanpa rimpu dianggap melanggar norma agama dan adat,” tambah Misbah.

sumber: Kompas.com

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